Hartaasti odotettu romudirektiivi tulossa europarlamenttiin (Helsingin Sanomat)

Euroopan komissio hyväksyi 13.6. ns. sähköromua koskevan direktiiviesityksen, joka tulee EU-parlamentin ympäristövaliokunnan käsiteltäväksi lähiaikoina. Tarkoitus on luoda EU:n jätestrategian mukaisia pelisääntöjä sähkölaitteiden käytöstä poistamiseen. Direktiiviä, jonka piiriin kuuluvat niin jääkaapit kuin matkapuhelimetkin, on odotettu hartaasti sekä teollisuudessa että ympäristöjärjestöissä.

Direktiivi kattaa kuluttajille myytävät ja kaupallisesti käytettävät elektroniset ja sähkölaitteet, mutta ei teollisia laitteita, johtoja ja kaapeleita. Se pyritään saattamaan voimaan mahdollisimman pian, ja voimaantulon jälkeen tuottajat, mukaan lukien jakeluporras, ovat vastuussa myymiensä laitteiden kierrätyksen rahoittamisesta. Viiden vuoden kuluttua voimaantulosta direktiivi velvoittaa tuottajat vastuuseen myös ns. historiallisesta jätteestä eli laitteista, jotka on valmistettu ja myyty ennen direktiivin voimaantuloa.

Direktiivi asettaa EU-tasoisen kierrätystavoitteen; suuret kotitalouskoneet, tietotekniikka ja loisteputkivalaisimet tulee kierrättää ja hyödyntää 90-prosenttisesti ja muut laitetyypit 70-prosenttisesti vuodesta 2006 lähtien. Keräilyaste tarkistetaan uudestaan 2008. Silloin astuu voimaan myös tiettyjen direktiivissä lueteltujen valmistusaineiden käyttökielto.

Ympäristön kannalta yhtenäinen lainsäädäntö tuo selkeää lisäarvoa. Monet EU-maat ovat kehittäneet alalla omaa lainsäädäntöä, minkä tuloksena käytäntö on kirjava. Kierrätystehokkuuden kannalta tämä ei ole ihanteellista; laitevalmistajat ovat kuitenkin pääsääntöisesti koko sisämarkkina-alueen kokoisia.

Kaikki jäte ei näy päältä katsoen

Käytöstä poistettava laite on vain jätevuoren huippu; yleinen nyrkkisääntö on, että elektroniikan yhtä romukiloa kohti on syntynyt jopa neljännestonni muuta jätettä raaka-aineiden hankkimisen, valmistuksen, kuljetusten ja laitteen käytön aikana. Laitteilla on ikään kuin ekologinen selkäreppu, jota ensinäkemältä, edestäkatsoen, ei välttämättä huomaa. Tätä tarkastelua direktiivin nykyinen versio ei vielä tee riittävästi.

Komission nyt antama direktiiviehdotus vaikuttaa ekosuunnitteluun kuitenkin epäsuorasti, tuottajavastuun kautta: kun tuottaja tietää joutuvansa vastaamaan laitteesta sen käytön jälkeen, on sillä jo suunnitteluvaiheessa kannuste tähdätä laitteisiin, jotka sopivat kierrätettäväksi mahdollisimman hyvin. Jo sadan gramman vähennys uuden materiaalin käytössä tuottaa 25 kilon säästön muussa jätteessä. Säästöt syntyvät, kun jokainen tuottaja on velvollinen vastaamaan oman tuotteensa keräilyn, käsittelyn ja kierrätyksen kustannuksista.

Tästä on elävä esimerkki kopiokoneiden valmistajissa ja myyjissä: kopiokonekannasta valtaosa, n. 80 % on liisattuja, jolloin koneet palaavat tuottajavastuun tapaan myyjälle tai valmistajalle. Tästä johtuu, että uusiokäyttö ja kierrätys toimivat jo, ja ekologisuus kertautuu aina logistiikkaa myöten. Kierrätyksestä poistuvaksi jätteeksi kopiokoneista jää alle 2 %, lähinnä kemikaaleja.

Tuottajavastuu on yksilöitävä

Tuottajavastuu toimii ympäristön kannalta parhaiten silloin, kun ekologisesti tuhlaillen valmistetun tuotteen ympäristökulut tulevat mahdollisimman suoraan tuottajansa kannettavaksi. Ympäristökomission viimeisessä direktiiviluonnoksessa toukokuussa tämä oli huomioitu, mutta komission kesäkuussa hyväksymässä kompromissiesityksessä tuottajan yksilöllistä vastuuta korostavat sanat on vedetty yli.

Parlamentilla on nyt ainutlaatuinen mahdollisuus toimia oikein ja tuoda merkittävällä tavalla EU:n jätestrategiaan sisältyvää jätehierarkiaa käytännön toimiin. Sen mukaan on ensisijaisesti pyrittävä vähentämään syntyvän jätteen määrää. Toissijaisesti jäte on palautettava kierrätykseen tai hyödynnettävä sen energiasisältö. Vasta viimeisellä sijalla on jätteen sijoittaminen kaatopaikoille. Tämä toteutuu tehokkaasti, jos tuottaja saa laskut omalla nimellään. Direktiiviehdotuksesta komission kompromissina poistetut yksilöllistä vastuuta korostavat sanat onkin syytä palauttaa. Siten yksilöllinen tuottajavastuu toimisi kirjanpitosäännösten mukaan jopa tapauksissa, joissa tuottaja ehtii syystä tai toisesta poistua markkinoilta ennen laitteen käyttöiän päättymistä.

Vaikka taloudellinen vastuu onkin jokaisen tuottajan kannalta yksilöllinen, voi itse kierrätys ja keräily tapahtua tuottajien valinnan mukaan myös yhteistyössä muiden tuottajien kanssa ns. poolin muodostamalla; pääasia on, että tilaa ei jätetä vapaamatkustajille.

Useat elektroniikka-alan yritykset ovat yllättäen samoilla linjoilla ympäristöjärjestöjen kanssa tuottajavastuukysymyksessä ja kiirehtivät sen voimaantuloa. Ne valmistajat, jotka ovat jo ennalta ymmärtäneet ottaa tuotannossaan huomioon myös ympäristön, ovat luonnollisesti direktiivin astuessa voimaan melkoisessa etulyöntiasemassa kilpailijoihinsa nähden.

Historiallinen jäte ratkaistava toisin

Historiallisen jätteen eli ennen direktiivin voimaantuloa valmistuneen romun osalta tilanne on vaikeampi: on myöhäistä kannustaa jo valmistetun laitteen selkärepun keventämiseen ekosuunnittelulla. Samoin on esitetty kriittisiä näkökohtia mm. tasapuolisuudesta, kun osa laitevalmistajista on lopullisesti poistunut markkinoilta tai myöhemmin investoinut voimakkaasti ekologisempiin tuotteisiin. Ongelma ei kuitenkaan ole ylivoimainen, jos se ratkaistaan nykyisten tuottajien ja jakelijoiden joukkovastuuna, keräämällä kustannukset markkinaosuuksien perusteella veron tapaan.

Tässä yhteydessä puhutaan toisinaan takautuvuudesta, retroaktiivisuudesta. Laitevalmistajien intressi välttää retroaktiivista lainsäädäntöä on sinänsä ymmärrettävä: historiallista jätettä on runsaasti kuluttajien ullakoilla ja kellareissa. Esim. tietokoneista on arvioitu palautuneen jätteeksi vasta kymmenisen prosenttia. Miljoonat tietokoneet ovat siis tulollaan laitevalmistajien niskaan suuren kotitalouslaitteiden vuoren lisäksi.

Tulisiko sitten verovaroja käyttää, edes osaksi, historiallisen jätteen kustannuksiin? Ei laitevalmistajien takia, hehän siirtävät kulut pääsääntöisesti kuluttajalle, mutta ylisukupolvisen oikeudenmukaisuuden vuoksi. Ei kuulosta oikeudenmukaiselta, että nuoret perheet ostaessaan vähillä rahoilla ensimmäisen asuntonsa jääkaapin tai lieden kustantaisivat samalla vanhempiensa ja isovanhempiensa laitteiden kierrätyksen.

Perusperiaate näyttäisi toimivan, jos erikseen säädetään yhteistoiminnan mahdollistava yksilöllinen tuottajavastuu uusien laitteiden osalta ja erikseen kaikkien tuottajien yhteisvastuu kaiken vanhan jätteen osalta. Vaikka välitön tavoite, jätteen asianmukainen käsittely, onkin sama niin historiallisen kuin tulevankin jätteen osalta, on tärkeää ratkaista historiallinen jäte erillään tulevasta jätteestä. Vain siten varmistetaan direktiivin kannalta kauaskantoisin tavoite – tulevan jätteen määrää vähentävä vaikutus. Siksi markkinapohjaisen kannustavan mallin valitseminen direktiivin pohjaksi on tärkeää.

E-kauppa on yhä ongelma

Tuottajavastuun kannalta keskeistä on "tuottajan" määrittely. Direktiiviehdotuksessa se tarkoittaa myös jakeluketjua, jolloin myös EU:n ulkopuolella tapahtuva tuotanto kuuluu direktiivin säätelyyn, jos myyjä tai jakelija kuitenkin on EU-jäsenmaassa. Näin direktiivi vaikuttaa tuotantoon myös halpatuontimaissa, joissa mm. suuri osa muoviosista teetetään. Myös kilpailunäkökohdista on hyvin perusteltua, että tuottajavastuu kattaa mahdollisimman tarkkaan kaiken Euroopassa myytävän elektroniikan.

Lähinnä vapaamatkustajia voi syntyä joko sähköisessä kaupankäynnissä tapahtuvan yksityisen tuonnin tai jäsenvaltion lepsun toimeenpanon myötä. Kumpaankin on kuitenkin mahdollista ja syytä puuttua. Internetkaupan osalta komission ehdotus on yhä epäselvä, vaikka aiemmista luonnoksista poiketen se sentään jo mainitaan. Jos tuottajavastuu osuu yksityisen tuonnin kohdalla suoraan kuluttajaan, ei ratkaisua voi pitää tyydyttävänä. Harkittavaksi jää tuottajan EU-maassa toimivan edustajan, esim. takuu- ja huoltoliikkeen vastuuttaminen, tai tuontimaksujen säätäminen sähköiselle kaupalle samaan tapaan kuin äskettäin päätettiin e-kaupan arvonlisäverojen perimisestä.

Niissäkään tapauksissa, joissa myyjä sijaitsee toisessa EU-maassa, internetkauppa ei ole aivan ongelmaton. Tarvitaan selvät säännöt siitä, miten kierrätyksestä koituvat kustannukset ja tuottajalta kerätyt maksut siirtyvät jäsenvaltioiden välillä.

Helsingin Sanomat, vieraskynä, 05.07.2000

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